Teaching aids are materials and equipment used in teaching.
The teaching aids used in the teaching can be classified into the following ways:
(a) Traditional Aids: Blackboard/chalkboard, books, periodicals.
(b) Visual Aids: Objects, picture, map, figure, chart, posters, model, bulletin board, flannel board, globe, graph or any other type of graphics such as| diagrams, cut-outs, cartoons, etc.
(c) Mechanical Aids:
(i) Audio: Radio, tape recorder, teaching machine.
(ii)Visual: Projector, epidiascope, film strips, motion picture, etc. (iii) Audio-Visual: Films, television, video, cassettes, etc. Visual Material Aids: Use of Chart: The most commonly used types of charts include outline charts, tabular charts, flow charts and organization charts. Flip charts and flow charts are also being used.
Purposes of Charts: Charts serve the following purpose:
1. For showing relationship by means of facts, figures and statistics.
2. For presenting materials symbolically.
3. For summarizing information.
4. For showing continuity in process.
5. For presenting abstract ideas in visual form.
6. For showing development of structure.
7. For creating problems and stimulating thinking.
8. For encouraging utilization of other media of communication.
9. For motivating the students.
Use of Globe: Knowledge of map is unreal without the knowledge of globe – the true map. It is the true representative of earth’s physical personality. A globe gives a true idea of the total environment at a glance in a classroom situation. It is through globe that a child can understand the concepts of time, space, wind’s planetary relations and proportion.
Four types of globes that may be kept in every school:
(1) Political globes
(2) Physical globes
(3) Washable projection globes
(4) Celestial globes
Use of Overhead Projector (OHP):
Overhead projector is a device that can project a chart, a diagram, a map, a table or for that matter, anything written on transparent plates, upon a screen on the white wall before students in a class. This makes teaching illuminative, illustrative and impressive. It also saves a great deal of the teacher’s time used in drawing or writing. These transparencies can also be preserved by the teacher for future display while facing up the same topic. It is very simple to prepare such transparencies. All that a teacher has to do is to draw or write, as the case may be, upon transparent plates with any dark ink with a fibre tipped pen. Any material meant for display before the class while teaching can also be typed on such transparencies using a good carbon paper. In case transparencies are to be washed out for use, washable water colour can also be used for writing on the transparencies.
IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AIDS.
Teaching aids play an very important role in Teaching- Learning process.
Teaching aids motivate the students so that they can learn better.
Through teaching aids , the teacher clarify the subject matter more easily.
3) Discouragement of Cramming
Teaching aids can facilitate the proper understanding to the students which discourage the act of cramming.
4) Increase the Vocabulary
Teaching aids helps to increase the vocabulary of the students more effectively.
5) Saves Time and Money
6) Classroom Live and active
Teaching aids make the classroom live and active.
7) Avoids Dullness
8) Direct Experience
Teaching aids provide direct experience to the students